In agriculture and plantations, tractor is a tool or machine that people often use as a device to plow and loosen the soil. However, tractors are not only used to plow the land. In fact, tractors are made with various types that have their own functions.
By definition, tractor is a heavy equipment and known as a vehicle that has a specific design for high traction at low speeds. Tractors can also be used as a trailer or a towing device used in agriculture and construction sector.
There are a few types of tractors that are divided based on their functions, such as:
Types of Tractor Based on Its Purpose
Looking from its purpose and function, there are five different types of tractors, which are:
- General Purpose Tractor
Based on its name, this tractor is often used for general operation. The function of this general purpose tractor is to plow, sow, scratch, harvest, and to transport. Typically, this single tractor has lower free range to the ground, good adhesion, wide tires, and a powerful engine.
- Special Purpose Tractor
The next type of tractor is a special purpose tractor used to cultivate the soil. Usually, these tractors are used specifically for the agricultural sector, watering crops, and so on. One of its features is having a higher ground clearance than general purpose tractor. Which mean it has higher space between the base of the tractor tire and the lowest point of the tractor. distance to the ground that is higher than the general purpose tractor type.
- Industrial Tractor
Looking at its name, this type of four-wheeled tractor is often used in industrial and mining sectors. Some of the characteristics of the industrial tractor are that it has quite a lot of traction. This tractor also has a front and rear wheels that are the same shape with double numbers.
- Plantation Tractor
This tractor is more often used on land that has a lot of plants. This is because plantation tractors can plow the land so that harvesting process is both easier and safer. Plantation tractor can also be used on land with sloped terrain. This is because this type of tractor has a low center of gravity construction. In addition, plantation tractors are usually equipped with roof guards and considerable strength.
- Garden Tractor
Unlike plantation tractor, this type of tractor, which is better known as a garden tractor, is used to help several small jobs, such as cutting grass or simple agricultural activities.
Types of Tractors Based on Drive Wheels
Tractors can also be differentiated based on the type of drive wheel. In general, the wheel is included in the part of tractor activator that receives power from the engine after passing through the transmission or power supply first.
You need to know, each shape of the wheel on the tractor is made according to the terrain it will go through. In other words, the wheels on the tractor can help us determine the function of the tractor itself, such as:
- Crawler Tractor
This type of tractor is often referred to as a blind wheel tractor which is divided into several different types, including:
- Low Ground Pressure Tractor
This tractor is designed for low pressure or loose soils such as peat soil. Therefore, the low ground pressure tractor has bigger wheels so it doesn’t get trapped into soft ground. Besides, there are several components that are deliberately removed so that the weight remains light.
- Swamp Crawler Tractor
After that, there is a swam crawler tractor which is specifically used in swamp areas. This one tractor has a ground pressure of 0.5 kg / cm2.
- Extra Swamp Crawler
This type of tractor is purposely designed for softer ground rather than the low ground pressure tractor and the swam crawler tractor. The ground pressure of the extra swam crawler is very small, around 0.25 kg / cm2.
- Special Application Crawler Tractor
Generally, this type of tractor is used to pull a variety of fairly heavy agricultural equipment.
- Standard Crawler Tractor
You could say, the standard crawler tractor is used for stockpiling or leveling land which is commonly used during forest clearing processes. One of the characteristics of this tractor can be seen from its ground pressure of about 0.8 kg / cm2.
- Rubber Wheel Tractor
Besides tractors equipped with crawler wheels, there are also tractors with rubber wheels or tires, just like the vehicles we commonly encounter on the road. Typically, this kind of tractor is used on flat and hard terrain away from the presence of moisture.
Tractors with tire wheels are divided into several types and their specific functions, as follows:
- Single Axle Tractor
A two-wheeled tractor or also known as a single axle is a tractor with one axle, but has two wheels on the left and right. Typically, a single axle has a power of about 12.5 HP. This tractor is often known as a hand tractor. It means that the driver does not need to get on the tractor, but instead walk behind the tractor.
- Double Axles Three Cycle Tractor
The next type of tractor is the double axles three cycle tractor which is generally used in planting, plant maintenance, and harvesting jobs. The three wheels consist of one wheel at the front and two wheels behind it.
- Four-Wheeled Tractor
Unlike previous tractor, this tractor has two axles with four wheels on each side. The four-wheeled tractor functions to cultivate the soil, such as plowing or harrowing. Based on the power generated, this tractor is divided into two types, which are mini tractors with a power of 12.5 – 30 HP and large tractors with a power of more than 30 HP.
When operating in the field, the weight of the wheeled tractor rests on the rear wheels about 80% of the dynamic weight it has. While the front wheels only support about 30% of the total weight.
Types of Tractor Based on Shape
After getting to know the type of tractor based on its use and driving wheels, the next is the type of tractor based on its shape, such as:
- Hand Tractor
As the name implies, this type of tractor is operated by human hands and has a small power around 12 HP. The hand tractor has only one axle and two wheels. Controlling this device is very easy, the driver only needs to stand right behind it. Hand tractors are one of the modern agricultural tools often used by farmers in Indonesia.
There are several additional tools that can be attached to the front or back of this tractor. The placement of a tool or motorbike on the axis is specially made in such a way as to ensure balance.
- Single-Wheeled Tractor
After that, there is a tractor with a single wheel which engine power is channeled to one wheel only. Therefore, this tractor requires a fulcrum as a balance shaft, such as increasing the coupling when it is operated. That way, the driver must be able to overcome the various freestyle styles generated by the tractor as well as the attachments.
- Mini Tractor
Even though it is said to be mini, this type of tractor has two axles and four wheels on either side. The length is about 1790 – 2070 with a width of 995 – 1020. In addition, the weight of this tractor is around 385 – 535 kg that is equipped with a two-cylinder diesel engine or more. It is known that the power generated by the mini tractor is around 13-40 HP with 6 forward speeds and 2 reverse speeds.
The engine working speed is about 0.94 – 4.79 km / hour and the transport speed is between 7.54 – 13.3 km / hour. Not only that, the mini tractor is equipped with a power take off and three points hitch. Generally, the structure of this type of tractor is not much different from a large tractor. The only difference between them is in the power alone.
- Farm Tractor
In general, a farm tractor has a length of about 2659 – 3910 mm and a width of 1740 – 2020 mm. This tractor is equipped with a power that is more than 45 HP. Each tractor has two axles, which mean that there are four or more wheels on either side.
Looking the size that tends to be large, the price of farm tractors is clearly more expensive, making it difficult for small farmers to purchase them. Usually, farm tractors are only owned by large companies or industries. Moreover, this type of tractor is less efficient when used on limited land.
- Ferguson System Tractor
The weight of this tractor is relatively light when compared to other types of tractors. That’s because the body is built low enough so that the driver’s feet will be on the left and right of the gear when sitting. However, traction capability is enhanced by placing an additional weight directly behind the tractor so that it functions as intended.
- Portal Tractor
This type of portal tractor usually has two reduction gears positioned one above the other to provide more space underneath.
- Downhill Tractor
Based at its name, downhill tractor is a type of tractor that has the ability to work on sloped terrain. Even at sloped position, the steering wheel and the engine in it remain upright. This is because the wheels are in a parallelogram position.
All right, that’s all the types of tractor based on its use, driving wheels, and also its shape. Hopefully this information is useful for those of you who are in need.