In simple terms, light is a wave that can reflect the image of objects so that the human eye can see it. In carrying out daily activities, humans cannot be separated from light.
The reflection of light on the surface of objects allows humans to see what objects are around them, whether they are dangerous objects or not, and facilitates activities.
The primary source of light on Earth is the sun. However, the sun can only provide light for a particular duration, from morning to evening. At night, the earth’s surface will be dark and make it difficult for humans to carry out activities. As a result, humans began to think and create a technology that can emit light when sunlight is not available; the technology is called a lamp.
At first, quoting from Wikipedia, many scientists have developed lights since the early 19th century but still fail. Failures that occur are caused by lamp materials that cannot be used for a long time. These lamps are called incandescent lamps, which use the heating of a metal coil to emit light.
Coils called filaments or incandescent wires in an airtight glass dome are heated with electricity, which will burn and emit light over time.
Along with the times, light technology is growing and producing various lamps with various advantages and disadvantages offered. On this occasion, you will discuss different types of lamps commonly used by mentioning the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of lamp.
1. Bulbs/Incandescent Lamps
This lamp is the first generation of lamp technology and is still widely used today. This lamp produces light from the process of heating the incandescent wire in the dome of the bulb.
The light emitted is yellow. These lamps are still often used because one of the reasons is that they are cheap. This lamp also has other advantages such as:
- Economical – The price of light bulbs on the market is the lowest compared to other types of lamps. Users will get a more significant number of bulbs by spending the same money to buy different lamps.
- Heat – because it utilizes the heating process of incandescent wire, the light bulb will generate heat around the glass dome. So, this lamp can be used as a heater in cold weather or as a heater for egg incubators.
- Adjustable light – In light bulbs, the voltage applied to the lamp can be adjusted according to the user’s wishes to produce the desired light using a dimmer. This type of lamp makes it possible to adjust the light intensity because the voltage value is not absolute at a certain number.
However, besides the many advantages of this type of lamp, the drawback is that it is wasteful. The light bulb is the type of lamp with the highest energy consumption of other types of lamps. Thus users will spend extra money to pay for PLN electricity.
This is because the energy used is mainly converted into heat, and only a small part is converted into light. It must be remembered, the light produced from the light bulb comes from the heating process of the incandescent wire.
So, it is not surprising that a lot of wasted energy becomes heat. Another definition of wasteful is that incandescent bulbs don’t last long, ranging from only 700 to 1,000 hours of use. So, users of this lamp will often spend money to replace the lamp.
2. Neon Light/Fluorescent Lamp
Neon light, also known as a fluorescent lamp and tube lamp (TL), utilizes the collision between phosphor elements in the lamp tube to produce light. This lamp is usually a long cylindrical shape, as shown.
This lamp is slightly different from the others because it requires an additional tool in the form of ballast. Ballast is an electronic component that functions to increase the voltage and frequency of the PLN source.
The PLN voltage and frequency, which are only rated at 220 volts and 50 Hz, will be increased to 500 to 800 volts with a frequency of 20 to 60 kHz.
This fluorescent lamp is usually applied to large locations. The light produced from this lamp is quite dazzling with the same wattage ratio and has the following advantages:
- Color variation – Compared to incandescent lamps, TL lamps are made in various colors, not just white and yellow. This makes the use of TL lamps not only limited to the lighting function but can also be used as a decorative (aesthetic) function.
- Energy saving – by utilizing the collision between the phosphorus elements in the lamp tube and the absence of a heating process, less energy is wasted in the form of heat. So, when compared to incandescent lamps, TL lamps will be more energy efficient. If incandescent bulbs can produce a range of 16 lumens per watt, then TL lamps can produce 50 to 100 lumens per watt (3-6 times less).
- Lifespan – the absence of excessively heated elements makes the life of this TL lamp longer when compared to incandescent lamps. While incandescent bulbs have a lifespan of 700 to 1,000 hours, TL lamps have 6,000 to 15,000 hours (8 to 15 times longer lifespan). The very long duration of use will affect time and cost-efficiency in terms of lamp maintenance.
- Cooler – incandescent lamps will feel hot if we put our hands around the glass dome, unlike the case with TL lamps, which have a cooler temperature around the lamp. For this reason, fluorescent lamps are suitable for use during the summer (with a note) in a large room.
- Brighter light – with less power, TL lamps can emit more light when compared to incandescent lamps. If it takes three incandescent lamps for lighting in a room, using TL lamps only requires one lamp.
However, in addition to the many advantages of this TL lamp, there are also disadvantages, such as:
- Complicated installation – Unlike general lamps, which only require a lamp housing connected to the PLN network, TL lamps have a more complex circuit than that. With the addition of ballasts, the PLN network cable cannot be directly connected to the lamp housing, but must first be connected to the ballast, then to the lamp housing.
- Higher price – the addition of ballast components makes the cost of fluorescent lamps more expensive. The price of ballasts can reach twice the price of TL lamps.
- It doesn’t light right away – when turned on, the TL lamp does not immediately light but takes time to start, which is indicated by the presence of several blinks.
3. CFL Lamp
Compact Fluorescent Lamps, also known as CFL lamps, are lamps from the development of fluorescent/TL lamps. This lamp still utilizes the collision between the phosphor elements on the wall of the lamp tube, but with a smaller size.
In contrast to TL lamps recommended for use in large rooms, this CFL lamp can be used in the household sector with a narrow space because it is available in small watts and without the need to use ballast. Nevertheless, the advantages of CFL lamps are almost the same as TL lamps, such as:
- More affordable price – have the same quality as fluorescent lamps; CFL lamps are priced lower. This is because there is no ballast in the installation of CFL lamps.
- Flexible – different from fluorescent lamps devoted to large rooms, these CFL lamps can be placed anywhere, like incandescent lamps. Its simple shape, like incandescent lamps, also makes the installation of CFL lamps easier.
- Bright – with the same size as a light bulb, the light emitted by CFL lamps resembles the light emitted by TL lamps.
However, besides the many advantages of this CFL lamp, there are also disadvantages such as wattage determines size. The brighter the desired light, the greater the wattage that must be used.
The amount of wattage in CFL lamps also has an impact on the size of the lamp. Indeed, a CFL lamp with a wattage of 5 will be smaller than a CFL lamp with a wattage of 10.
4. Halogen Lamp
Halogen lamps, like incandescent lamps, utilize the process of heating the filament to produce a brighter light. The usage of high power also drives this. Halogen lamps are usually used in motor vehicles, shooting lights in stadiums or fields.
Although it has the same working principle as incandescent lamps, halogen lamps still have advantages such as:
- Able to penetrate the fog – in motorized vehicles, fog lights usually use halogen lamps. The intensity of the intense light makes the light of halogen lamps able to penetrate the fog. In addition, the use of yellow in this lamp also causes halogen lamps to penetrate fog.
- Economical – in terms of price, halogen lamps are priced at a lower price with a light intensity that almost resembles an LED lamp. This sometimes causes halogen lamps to be more desirable for use in vehicles than other lamps.
However, in addition to the many advantages of this halogen lamp, there are also disadvantages such as:
- Heat – because it uses the principle of heating filament to produce light, just like incandescent lamps. Halogen lamps tend to generate more heat around the lamp.
- Wasteful – like incandescent lamps, the energy used to produce more light is wasted as heat. Thus, the use of power will be higher to have a brighter light.
5. LED Lamps
Light Emitting Diode lamps or LED lamps are the latest generations of lamps from all existing light technologies. This lamp utilizes a diode as a source of light generation.
These lights have a variety of shapes, can be compact like a bulb or a tube-like fluorescent lamp. In addition, this lamp is claimed to be a lamp with the most efficient energy consumption compared to other types of lamps. Other advantages of this lamp are:
- No starting time – unlike the case of TL lamps, which require time to light up optimally, LED lights will immediately emit optimal light when the switch is first turned on.
- Efficient – LED lamps are claimed to only consume about 10% of the energy of incandescent lamps to produce the same amount of light.
- Flexible – the same as light bulbs and CFLs, with a compact form that makes LED lights used in various places. The working principle that only utilizes diodes to produce light makes LED lamps have a smaller volume.
- Low temperature – the absence of a heating process in the lamp impacts the cool temperature around the lamp dome. It is suitable for summer use. Another advantage is that it can extend the lifespan of the lamp.
- Durable – LED lamps have the longest lifespan compared to other lamps such as CFLs or incandescent lamps. This lamp can last up to 50,000 hours of usage, and some brands claim that their LED lights can last up to 150,000 hours. The secret to the longevity of LED lamps lies in the diodes used to produce light. The use of diodes makes the lamp not produce excessive heat and makes the lamp housing not easily damaged or easily broken.
- Environmentally friendly – LED lamps do not produce UV light, so they are safe for humans. In addition, this lamp also saves electrical energy, thereby saving the use of natural resources to produce more electricity.
However, in addition to the many advantages of this LED lamp, there are also disadvantages such as:
- Not suitable for cold climate – for users with cold climatic conditions, the use of LED lights will not help increase the ambient temperature.
- Less economical – LED lamps are the most expensive lamps today. For this reason, users have to spend more if they want to use LED lamps and want to get the benefits of using them. As an illustration, with the same wattage, it can reach five times the price of incandescent lamps.
Those are the description of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of lamp that is commonly used. The selection of lamp types can be adjusted to the needs of use regardless of the advantages and disadvantages obtained.