The Components of Compactor and the Functions

A drum compactor is a heavy equipment or construction machine that functions to compact soil, asphalt, or concrete to create a flat surface.

These machines are manufactured in various forms for specific industries, such as road construction or solid waste compaction. There are several types of compactors. Common forms of compactors can include single or multiple drums, and may be vibrating or static.

There are several components contained in the compactor, including:

components of compactors

1. Drum Compactor

Drum Compactor is part of a compactor that functions to compact materials such as soil, gravel, sand, road surfaces, and so on. Drums can also be referred to as rollers.

Generally compactors have a variety of drum configurations. Single drum compactors are the most commonly used compactors.

Single-drum compactors are generally used for compressing loose soil, road construction, or compacting freshly poured concrete to a flat surface.

Whereas compactors with dual drums provide more compaction power. There are generally two drum locations on a dual drum compactor, namely in front and behind.

The extra compaction of the double drum can reduce voids in wet concrete for a durable road formation. There are several types of drums on a compactor, including:

Smooth Drum

Smooth Drum

Is a drum used for work with flat surfaces such as asphalt. Cylindrical rollers are generally 1 meter in diameter and are generally made of iron, stone, or concrete. Smooth drums are generally equipped with movement mechanisms such as:

  • Smooth Vibrating Drum

In this mechanism, the drum does not only rely on the static force, the weight of the drum, but also uses the vibrating force to produce a more powerful effect.

The vibrations involve a rotating or reciprocating mass that allows the drum to vibrate. The addition of this movement mechanism allows the drum to work more efficiently and have a higher compaction rate.

  • Smooth Oscillating Drum

In this mechanism, the drum relies more on oscillating forces. Oscillation provides a gentle, yet very effective compaction method and is currently the standard compaction method in sensitive areas around buildings and homes.

The oscillatory force uses much less force than the vibrating force, but provides both vertical and horizontal energy, essentially manipulating the aggregate into place.

Padfoot Drum

is a drum that has a lattice of steel bars and forms a pattern on the drum. The drum is also weighted in the form of concrete blocks or steel joints to provide high contact pressure in a compaction.

This drum is widely used in work with materials in the form of well graded soil, coarse soil, weathered rock, as well as for road construction.

Padfoot Drum

Pneumatic Drum

Pneumatik Drum

Is a type of large drum configuration with several rows of rubber tires on the front or rear. Rubber tires provide 80% coverage area and uniform pressure over the entire tire width.

2. Cabine

Cabine is where the operator sir. On the modern compactor, usually the cabine is equipped with the Air Conditioner (AC).

3. Body Frame

The body frame, otherwise known as the chassis, is the main supporting structure of the compactor where all the components are attached to the part.

The main function of the body frame is to support the mechanical components and body of the vehicle, as well as to handle static and dynamic loads, without bending or distortion. Loads that can be handled by the body frame include:

  • Passenger weight and cargo load
  • Vertical or torsional rotation, transmitted with uneven surface
  • Transverse lateral force, caused by road conditions, side winds and vehicle steering
  • Torque of engine and transmission
  • Tensile force extends from the start of acceleration
  • Compression from braking
  • The impact from the sudden collision

On the compactor there are two parts of the body frame, namely the rear frame which is located at the rear near the rubber wheels, and the front frame where the drum is attached.

4. Articulated Joint

Articulated joints are permanent or semi-permanent axle joints, which allow parts of the vehicle to move with sharp turns. In compactors, articulated joints connect the rear frame and front frame to the body frame.

5. Rubber Buffer

Rubber Buffer

The rubber buffer is the most important part of the drum which prevents the transmission of vibrations from the drum to the machine to ensure the operator can focus on his work without being distracted.

This tool is generally found in a vibrating and oscillating drum. The hardness and shape of the optimal rubber buffer generally varies and depends on the type of drum.

The optimal level of hardness of the rubber buffer can allow the transmission of compaction energy to be carried out optimally, but the size error in the rubber buffer can reduce the compaction performance.

6. Unbalance

Unbalance is another name for ballast in a compactor. Unbalance will allow oscillations or vibrations to occur in the compactor.

In the vibration force mechanism, a type of unbalance is used which will force the drum to experience a rapid circular motion, resulting in most of the compaction energy being directed vertically to the compacted object.

Whereas in the oscillating force, there are two unbalances, which rotate simultaneously. This causes the drum to perform a rapid back and forth rotary motion, and the compaction energy is directed toward the compacted object tangentially back and forth in the form of a shear force.